The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive load and emotional arousal on liar’s gaze aversion. 112 participants were randomly assigned to four liar groups according to cognitive load and emotional arousal conditions (high cognition - high emotion: n = 29, high cognition - low emotion: n = 27, low cognition - high emotion: n = 29, low cognition - low emotion: n = 28). All participants were interviewed after lie tasks was performed, and gaze aversion was measured using a wearable eye-tracker. The high cognitive load condition had a significant higher gaze aversion than the low cognitive condition. There was no difference in gaze aversion among emotional arousal conditions. The interaction of cognitive load and emotional arousal was significant. In high cognitive load conditions, gaze aversion appeared with high frequency regardless of emotional arousal. In low cognitive load and high emotional arousal condition, gaze aversion appeared with low frequency. Therefore, this study suggests that it is necessary to consider the effects of cognitive load and emotional arousal levels on the liar‘s gaze aversion behavior.
For detecting deception research, the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is the most widely used method in conjunction with electroencephalography (EEG). Moreover, mock crime scenarios were commonly adopted for providing materials for lying. Mock crime scenarios have relatively higher ecological validity than other paradigms like autobiographical information or card test. However, current mock crime scenarios also have some limitations because of ethical issues, resource issues, and experimental controllability. Virtual reality (VR) is a potential alternative to overcome the disadvantages. Nonetheless, few studies used VR for mock crime, and there is no research on the comparison between ‘actual’ mock crime and ‘virtual’ mock crime. In the present study, we developed a high-fidelity virtual environment and used it for the virtual mock crime. Participants were randomly assigned both for the Crime status (innocent or guilty) and the Environment mode (actual or VR). After the scenarios, participants were tested by P300-based CIT with EEG recording. To verify the effects of virtual mock crime on subsequent EEG data during CIT, we focused on the P300 event-related component (ERP) and individual classification using the bootstrapping method in the study. As we hypothesized, the main effect of environment mode was not significantly different, and the interaction between stimuli type (target, probe, irrelevant) and environment mode was also not significant when we exclude one outlier. Furthermore, the accuracy of individual classification was equivalent between the actual and the VR. These results were also supported by ROC analysis and equivalence test. All statistical results suggest that there is no significant difference between actual mock crime and virtual mock crime. In conclusion, the study suggests that the virtual mock crime is a potential alternative method for mock crime scenarios.
신문 전 피의자 권리고지는 피의자 신문에 앞서 진술거부권 및 변호인 조력권을 고지하는 규정이다. 본 연구는 피의자신문 전 권리 고지 방식 및 내용이 일반인들의 피의자 권리 이해에 미치는 영향에 대해 살펴보았다. 연구1에서는 31명의 대학생들을 대상으로 현행 피의자 권리 고지문에 포함된 개념에 대한 이해를 확인하였다. 연구결과 참가자들은 ‘일체의 진술’, ‘변호인 조력’ 등 용어에 대한 이해가 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 연구2에서는 157명의 19세 이상 참가자들을 대상으로 신문 전 피의자 권리고지 내용(현행 고지문/수정 고지문)과 고지방식(구두제시/서면제시/구두서면 동시제시)이 다른 6개의 조건 중 하나의 조건으로 피의자 권리를 제시한 후 권리 이해도를 평가하였다. 현행 고지문은 현행 법령에 의해 피의자 수사면담 시 사용되고 있는 권리고지문을 그대로 사용하였으며, 수정고지문은 연구1의 결과를 바탕으로 현행 형사소송법상 규정되어 있는 법률 용어에 대한 설명을 추가하여 좀 더 쉬운 표현으로 수정하였다. 연구 결과 일반인들은 현행 고지문을 제시하였을 때보다 수정된 고지문을 제시하였을 때 피의자 권리에 대한 이해도가 유의미하게 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 다만 권리고지 방식에 따른 피의자 신문 전 권리 이해도의 차이는 없었다.
Pre-Interrogation notification of suspect rights refers the provisions on right to refuse to make statement and assistance from attorneys before the interrogation of a suspect. This study investigate the effects of contents and methods of pre-interrogation rights notification on understanding of the suspect’s rights. Study 1 examined the words and concepts in the current notification of suspects rights with 31 college students and found that their understanding was low in terms including “whole statements”, “Assistance from attorneys” ect. Study 2 presented one of six conditions of different content(current notificiation/ reivised notificiation) and methods (oral/written/both) of pre-interrogation notification of suspect rights to 157 participants aged 19 or older and assessed their understanding of suspect rights. The current notification was the rights notification itself used in the investation and interview of suptes in the current legislation. The revised notification added explanations about legal terms of the current Criminal Orocedre Code and rivised them in easier expression based on the findings of Study 1. The results show that participants had a significantly higher understading of suspects rights when provided with the revised notification than the current one. There wrer on siginficant differences in their understadning of suspects rights before interrogations aorcding to the mthods of presenting.
본 연구는 노인학대 가해자의 유형을 잠재계층분석을 통해 분류함으로써 노인학대 가해자의 이질성을 살펴보고자 한다. 분석을 위해 총 69개의 사례들을 중앙노인보호기관이 발간한 사례집에서 추출했다. 노인학대 가해자의 학대유발요인에 따라 집단으로 분류하기 위해 총 11개의 학대유발요인에 기반해 가해자에 대해 잠재계층분석을 실시했다. 그 결과 정신장애형 가해자, 스트레스표출형 가해자, 의존형 가해자, 부양부담형 가해자 등 네 가지 유형으로 학대행위자를 유형화할 수 있었다. 선행연구에서는 학대행위나 피해자에 초점을 맞추었기 때문에 살펴볼 수 없었던 노인학대 가해자들의 학대유발요인에 따른 이질성을 확인할 수 있었다. 연구의 한계, 정책적 함의, 그리고 향후 연구 방향에 대해 제안하였다.
This study classifies elder abuser into subtypes based on their profiles. 69 cases with abusers’ demographics, harmful characteristics, and abuse behaviors were retrieved from case books published by government agencies. Latent class analysis was used to categorize abusers based on 11 variables. Result showed that abusers fall into 4 profiles descriptively labeled “Mental disordered”, “stress explosive”, “dependent”, “economical burden” types. This result revealed abuser subtypes which are not able to be identified by analysis of abusing behaviors. Discussion and future research direction are discussed.